Salmonella bacteria have been found in children in England. If he created a shock effect in this country, his parents were also worried in Turkey. Citizens who want information about this bacterium after the bacterium seen in the brand of chocolate, “What is Salmonella bacterium? What are the symptoms of Salmonella?” he asks.
WHAT ARE SALMONELLA BACTERIA
Salmonella is a rod-shaped bacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae family. About 2000 subtypes cause disease in humans. Salmonella typhi (typhoid) and Salmonella paratyphi (paratyphoid) are species that only cause diseases called enteric fever (typhoid, paratyphoid) in humans and can develop into epidemics from time to time. Salmonella subtypes other than these are called nontyphoidal salmonellae.
HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED?
Drinking and using contaminated water (contaminated with bacteria) of unknown origin,
Human and animal wastes are not disposed of properly and their mixing with spring waters,
It can be transmitted due to insufficient chlorination of drinking water and running water.
Foods that carry Salmonella and are undercooked, such as meat, eggs, milk and dairy products,
Unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese,
It can also be transmitted through raw vegetables and contaminated (dirty) fruits, spices and snacks.
After contact with sick poultry,
Infection can occur if hygiene rules are not followed, especially after contact with reptiles such as snakes, turtles, lizards, frogs, birds and domestic animals such as chicks.
The bacteria can also be transmitted from sick people to other people.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?
Approximately 12 to 72 hours after Salmonella bacteria are introduced into the body, symptoms of illness appear in the form of diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting and abdominal cramps. The illness usually lasts 4-7 days and most people recover without treatment. In some people, the diarrhea may be severe enough to require hospitalization. The disease is more severe in the elderly, infants, and people with weakened immune systems.
HOW IS DIAGNOSED?
Definitive diagnosis of Salmonella infections is made by isolating Salmonella species from stool, blood, urine and culture taken from the focus of infection.
HOW DOES THE TREATMENT WORK?
The treatment of the disease is carried out by the doctor with appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy.
People who show signs of illness should seek medical attention immediately.
HOW ARE WE PROTECTED?
Salmonella bacteria are not resistant to proper chlorination of water, boiling, proper cooking of food and pasteurization. Therefore, for protection purposes;
Reliable use of water;
Chlorinated city water is to be preferred as drinking and sanitary water,
Do not consume water of unknown origin and not chlorinated,
In mandatory cases, it should be used after boiling for 10 minutes.
Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene and the habit of washing hands;
Hands should be washed with soap and water before and after eating.
Hands should be washed with soap and water before and after using the toilet.
Salmonella carried in the intestines of chicks and ducklings are found in the environment of the animal and on the entire body surface.
Bacteria can also be exposed simply by holding and hugging them. Reptiles (turtles, iguanas, lizards, etc.) are also animals more likely to carry salmonella. After contact with all animals, even pets, hands should be washed with soap and water.
RELIABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION;
High-risk foods such as raw or undercooked eggs, meat or poultry, shellfish, and unpasteurized milk should be eaten after they have been thoroughly cooked.
Avoid homemade sauces (mayonnaise, etc.) made with raw eggs,
Wash hands, kitchen work surfaces and utensils with soap and water immediately after contact with raw meat or poultry.
Raw meat, chicken, and seafood should be kept separate from other foods in the refrigerator or freezer to avoid cross-contamination,
If possible, there should be two cutting boards in the kitchen (a separate cutting board for raw meat and a separate one for fruit and vegetables), cooked food should not be placed on a previously used and uncleaned surface for raw meat,
Frozen foods should be cooked and eaten immediately after thawing and should not be refrozen.
Although there is a vaccine against Salmonella infections, its protection is not high.
Against Salmonella infections: All age groups are at risk, although the risk is higher in infants, the elderly and immunocompromised people.
•Children with signs of Salmonella infection should be taken to a doctor immediately by their family.
• Pregnant and lactating people should seek medical attention immediately in case of illness and should not take medication without doctor’s approval.
WHO IS PART OF THE RISK GROUP?
All age groups are at risk for Salmonella infections, although the risk is higher for infants, the elderly, pregnant and breastfeeding women, and people with weakened immune systems.